KIWOHEDE ANNUAL REPORT 2015
CBD- Community Based Distributors
CBO- Community Based Organization
CSEC- Commercial Sexual Exploitation for Children
DAC- Day of the African child
DSW- Department Social Welfare
FCS- Foundation for civil society
FP- Family Planning
IEC- Information Education Communication
IGA- Income Generation Activities
IRC- International Rescue Committee
KIWOHEDE- Kiota Women Health Development Organization
NGO – Non Governmental Organization
SRHR- Sexual Reproductive Health Rights
GBV Gender Based Violence
WDACL- World day against child labor
WDC- Ward Development Committee
KIWOHEDE appreciates all individuals and institutions for their support which motivated them to work efficiently throughout the year 2015. We recognize the contribution of all stake holders for their support during the implementation of the entire organization programs; this is including the government authorities and the local communities for their support.
A special thanks to KIWOHEDE Executive Director Justa Mwaituka for her moral and technical support during writing this report and organization continue to prosper. We acknowledges and appreciates the efforts from board of Directors on encouragement to maintain our progress in track
KIWOHEDE, would like to express its gratitude and appreciation to all those who gave department the possibility to complete this report.
We appreciate the continuous support from our development partners specifically UNICEF, KIOTA London, UNFPA, TERESED HOMES, AMREF, IRC and FHI, ECPAT for their financial and technical support which they gave us to fulfill our vision, mission and our goals as planned per our programs strategic plans.
Kiota Women's Health and Development (KIWOHEDE) is a non- government organization with focus to promote reproductive health, children’s rights, development and advocacy. The organization was founded in 1998 by health and social worker activists and got her registration in 1999. Since her inception KIWOHEDE engaged in rights promotion, social economical and development approaches as the organizing principle of her project to serve women, children, youth and the community. KIWOHEDE’s project thematically focus is to fight child sexual abuse, violence and exploitations, teen pregnancy, early marriages and school dropouts among girls across the country.
Based in Buguruni, one of the low-income areas in Dar es Salaam, KIWOHEDE is further committed to work with poor communities in Tanzania to promote, children, youth, women's dignity and rights .KIWOHEDEs geographical working coverage regions includes Dar es Salaam Three District Ilala, Temeke and Kinondoni, Iringa, Mbeya , Ruvuma, Kigoma, Tanga ,Shinyanga Kahama and Mtwara.
Since 1998 KIWOHEDE have been working in communities implementing different projects around Tanzania with different development partners.
In this reporting period 2015 KIWOHEDE was implementing and leading 6 projects, targeting vulnerable and poor families. Children, youth and women who face vulnerable situation and rescue them and empowers them with life skills, entrepreneurship, formal education and informal education.
In 2015 KIWOHEDE implemented a total number of 5 projects in different regions In 2015 KIWOHEDE implemented a total number of 5 projects in different regions
- WEKEZA project targeting to eliminate child labour in hazardous domestic work in Kigoma and Tanga region.
- KIWOHEDE Bunju Centre a multipurpose centre under KIOTA UK funding Bunju centre which is a Multipurpose Training facility supporting vulnerable children and youth who had missed opportunity to access secondary education and vocational training centre.
- Commercial sexual exploitation of children in Mtwara Municipal under Terre des Homes funding, supporting children in commercial sex work by integrating them in vocational skills and formal education,
- Adolescent sexual reproductive health project-in Kahama district under UNFPA funding
- KIWOHEDE centers Provides psychosocial counseling to children who have gone through all forms of abuse violence and exploitation including trafficked victims.
- 6. Children and Youth Participation Project (CYP) -ECPAT
1.1 KIWOHEDE Mission
KIWOHEDE exists to contribute to the elimination of all forms of abuse, sexual violence, and exploitation through policy and community engagement, reproductive health and institutionalization of strategies to prevent, rescue, rehabilitate and integration mechanisms for vulnerable and affected children, youth and women.
1.2 KIWOHEDE Vision
KIWOHEDE envisions a society where children, youth and women are free from all forms of abuse, sexual violence and exploitation
1.3 Our Values
Description Of Projects Implemented In 2015
2.1 Project Background
In 2012 December KIWOHEDE joined a consortium of five partners, International Rescue Committee (IRC), World Vision (WV), Foundation for the Civil Society (FCS), Tanga Youth and Development Association (TAYODEA), and the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) from the University of Dar Es Salaam to implement 4years child labour project targeting Tanga and Kigoma regions respectively in three district for each region, in Tanga WEKEZA cover Muheza, Korogwe and Tanga city Municipal.Kasulu,Kigoma Ujiji and Uvinza in Kigoma region, with total no of 18 wards and 54 villages for both regions.
WEKEZA project is four years time Bound Program projected for elimination of worst forms of Child Labor targeting children who are in child labour /in risk to be engaged into child labour. The previous research resulted high magnitude of child labor in agriculture (sisal and tobacco subsectors, fishing and domestic work. Under United States Department of Labour (USDOL) In 2015 KIWOHEDE conducted are total number of 9 meetings at ward level in Korogwe Muheza and Tang city Municipals raising awareness through different topics in hand with international theme of the year “SAY YES TO EDUCATION SAY NO TO CHILD LABOUR” the topic focus the nature of activities of the area, for example In Korogwe the was culture turn down level of education, is influenced by pastoralists communities, and farming activities that compromise children to concentrate with school programs In this reporting period through WEKEZA project KIWOHEDE reached more than 920 house hold during its door to door raising awareness activity.
2.3 Project Goal and Outcomes
The goal of WEKEZA is to sustainably reduce child labor in Kigoma and Tanga region. PROJECT OUTCOME
- Children and youth who are at risk of engaging or engaged in child labor, access, attend and complete formal and non-formal primary and secondary education.
- Households with increased income rely less on child labor to meet family needs.
- Access to safe and productive employment opportunities to youth increased
- Children at risk of or engaged in child labor and their families increased access to national social protection services.
- Institutional capacity and policies to address child labor strengthened.
- Understanding of child domestic labor and other child labor issues increased at national and local level.
2.4 KIWOHEDE ROLES
During implementation period, under WEKEZA Project KIWOHEDE is responsible for the following
- To provide overall guidance and structure to the project activities related to the domestic service activities in the six target district in Kigoma and Tanga regions;
- To participate in developing the criteria and terms of reference and selection process of the civil society organization (CSO) recipients of sub-awards through the Foundation for Civil Society (FCS);
- To train FCS CSO sub-awardees in targeted districts in Kigoma and Tanga on community sensitization and participatory community awareness raising strategies/models regarding child labor in domestic service;
- To train and provide technical support to CSOs in targeted districts in Kigoma and Tanga on child labor advocacy tools, structures, and methods (i.e. association of responsible parents, advocating to employers, etc.), in collaboration with the IRC and based on needs identified during baseline assessment(s);
- To lead in development of WEKEZA communication strategy for awareness raising strategy, with particular attention to child labor in domestic services and agriculture;
- To lead in development, production, and dissemination of information, education and communication (IEC) materials related to child labor awareness raising efforts at the local level, including training CSOs on use and dissemination of these IEC materials;
- To participate in building awareness of social protection programs amongst communities and families of children at risk of or engaged in child labor, including contributing to adaptation/simplification of child labor/domestic-service related policies/laws/conventions to be disseminated to Local Government Authorities and other key stakeholders and communities members in targeted districts;
- To participate in and support district and/or national policy dialogues under WEKEZA project including limited to dialogues advocating for approval, adoption and dissemination of the National Child Development Policy, a National List of Hazardous Work, National Action Plan for Elimination of Child Labor;
- To provide financial and progress reports according to USDOL requirements for regular reporting.
2.5 Strategic Approaches Used For Awareness Raising
In 2013 KIWOHEDE developed WEKEZA communication strategy and come up with the following strategic approaches for awareness raising activities implemented by KIWOHEDE in Tanga and Kigoma:
- Social mobilization committees. This involves approaches like Establishing relationships with stakeholders; Community sensitization through organized meetings; Conducting Parents forums, Formulation of groups e.g. establishment of child rights clubs.
- Experience sharing. It involves Compilation of testimonies of children who are engaging in child labour and direct observation of the situation of children in their own.
- Advocacy. For the advocacy activities, KIWOHEDE use Social/community dialogues; conducting Capacity building to beneficiaries and LGAs officres
- Information provision. Development and production and distribution of IEC materials such as T-shirts, brochures, fliers, caps, flags and banners. Also providing information on laws and regulations related to child labour.
- Education and training. Actual training on CL, Child Rights Clubs, and Football competitions on CL, Poetry, and Debates. e.g. training on the Law of Child Act, 2009
- Interpersonal communication. This includes Community Conversations/Group Dialogues and Talking Compounds, talking walls with different child labor messages.
- Edutainment. This involves Sports activities, drawing competition and School debates.
2.6 Implemented Activities.
a) Behavioral Change Agents training (BCA’s)
In this reporting time, a total number of 263 youth were trained as Behavioral Change Agents (BCA’s) in Tanga and Kigoma region for the purpose of increasing community understanding on the effects of child labour whereby they will be conducting awareness raising campaign by home visit based of WEKEZA beneficiaries. In each district 45 youth were selected for training as BCA wereby each village provided five youth who were trained. In Tanga region 135 youth were trained from the three districts while 128 were trained in Kigoma region in the three districts. This activity was conducted between 19th-25th March, 2015 in Tanga region and 1st-9th June, 2015 in Kigoma region.
The overall goal of this training was to strengthen the capacity of youth who are beneficiaries of WEKEZA project as community change drivers who can contribute the community to change over child labour concepts within their community, as some are the victims of child labour and hero of WEKEZA projects. The use of village meetings, community dialogues, public events, governments holidays were mentioned as tool to approach the community to disseminates the massage that will be contributing to behaviour change and community’s actions over child labour at their local area Specifically the following were the objectives of the training:
- i. To empower youth with knowledge on child labour issues and become community change drivers and promote community change on their actions and perception towards child labour especially in domestic and agriculture sectors in their respective area;
- ii. To empower youth with skills and techniques that will enable them to reach at least 20 community members each month with child labour messages especially on the effects of child labour and the importance of education to children;
- iii. To strengthen youth knowledge on how to conduct home visit for awareness raising campaign by using WEKEZA communication strategy to educate community members in their respective areas on the effects of child labour for the wellbeing of the child and their future life;
- iv. To strengthen youth communication and leadership skills that will help them to deriver child labour messages in their respective areas;
- v. To help youth to identify different child labour messages in accordance with the type of the audiences in their areas.
2.7 Child Rights Clubs Follow Up
In this reporting period, the total number of 21 primary and secondary school visited to mension few Kirare primary and secondary school, Magubeni Secondary, secondary school Pande , Mnazi mmoja, Jambe, Sahare, Songa, Henkel, Mkulumilo ,Mtindiro , Kilongo, Bagamoyo primary school, for Tanga Region and 5 schools in Kigoma region .The total number of 120 child interviewed included the child right clubs leader from visited schools, while 25 patron/matron-interviewed during school child club visiting
The purpose of the follow up was basically based on monitoring activities conducted by child rights clubs established on August 2014 in all 64 in Kigoma region. About three (3) meetings were conducted with COBET and CRC focal teachers, how do they support and help CRC and COBET members to educate the community and their fellow students on the effects of child labor and advantages of education for their wellbeing future.
2.8 Child Rights Clubs status
The CRC status inspired a lot, children are very aware with their rights, the knowledge that every ear would like to here, child get time to share their life experience despite dangerous and risk environments surround them, they keep educating others on the importance of education, top on that their creative when they sing songs that addressing the responsibility of community to protect children from harm and take them back school.
CRC members from Henkel Primary School, discussing children issues in their school in Muheza district during CRC follow-up in Tanga region
a) Commemoration of the world Day against Child Labor(WDACL) 2015
In collaboration with other WEKEZA partners KIWOHEDE prepared the commemoration of the world day against child labor that is usually commemorated in every 12th June of each year. In this year, 2015 the commemoration was prepared in Kigoma region one of our project region under the lead of KIWOHEDE who is the leading partner in awareness raising component. The theme of the year 2015 stated that “Say No to Child Labour, Yes to Quality Education”. As part of awareness raising towards the commemoration of the WDACL.
Shows the number of people reached with child labor message during commemoration of the WDACL in Kigoma 2015
Type of activity
# of people reached with CL messages
Football and Netball competition
Peak day for WDACL
2.9 Village meetings in Tanga region
KIWOHEDE conducted 3 village meeting in each of the three project districts in Tanga region. In Tanga City Councils the meetings were conducted in Kirare ward (Kirare Street), Mzingani ward (Sahare Street) and Kiomoni ward (Pande A street). In Muheza district councils awareness raising meetings were conducted in Mtindiro ward (Kwabota village), Songa ward (Songa Batini village), and Kwafungo ward (Bagamoyo village). In Korogwe district council, the meetings were conducted in Mkalamo ward (Mpasilasi village), Mnyuzi ward (Mnyuzi village) and Mpale ward (Kwemanolo village).Estemated that a total of number 2374 people attended the meetings in all of the nine (9) meetings conducted in the three districts in Tanga.
The main purpos was to create awareness within the community on the effects of child domestic work among children and on the importance of education to children in the respect areas. The agendas included the prevalence of children engaged on child domestic work, enforcement of child labor clubs and the importance of education to children, cultural values that view girls as domestic workers, child protection, legal and economic implication of child domestic work.
It was observed that village meetings have contributed much to raise community awareness on the importance of education and the effects of child labour.
It was revealed that some parents/guardians are not responsible to their children such that the children cannot get their basic need for their studies in schools.
Lack of parent follow up on children’s school development contribute to school dropout without parent’s knowledge hence they engage themselves into child labour.
suggestions and agreements were made by the community members which include Parents to be responsible for the betterment of their children, Parents to have good relationships with teachers and make frequent follow up of education development for their children, Meals program to be introduced in schools to make children like school (parents to contribute), to have good relationship among parents to avoid family break down that cause child labour and Village and ward leaders to use the approved bylaws to ensure that child labour is eliminated in the respective areas.
2.10 Establishment of Talking walls in Schools
In this reporting period, KIWOHEDE one of the partners in WEKEZA project in collaboration with CSO’s working under awareness raising, established talking walls in schools with pictures and messages that convey child labour message to the targeted groups in schools who are project beneficiaries. They include our primary beneficiaries, children, parents (households), teachers and the general community.
The content of messages ranged from increasing awareness to the targeted group on the effects of child labour, the importance of education to the child and laws, regulations and policies that protect children from child labour. A total of 68 schools out of 103 (34 in Tanga, and 34 in Kigoma) were reached with talking wall messages in which it is estimated that a total of 17,000 people were reached with child labour messages through the talking walls in which every school it is estimated that 250 people were reached with child labor message .
b) Establishment of talking compounds in Kigoma and Tanga region
In this period of January-December, a total number of 102 schools were reached with the establishment of talking compounds in which 39 schools were reached in Tanga region, and 63 schools in Kigoma. Different child labour messages were painted on the wooden cards and placed at trees surrounding schools for the purpose of delivering child labour messages to the school community (students/pupils, teachers) and the general community as well. This activity conducted between14th -28th January, 2015 and 23rd February-5th March, 2015.
The messages were meant to inform and eventually change behavior of the pupils, parents, teachers and the general community towards all actions related of using children in different economic activities and instead they should send them back to school. Secondly the main purpose of placing/putting talking compounds in schools was to raise awareness in schools community and the general public on effects of child labour especially in domestic works at the local level and hence change behavior of the pupils, parents, teachers and the general public towards all actions related to using children in different economic activities instead of sending them to school.
KIWOHEDE in collaboration with the Schools, especially our focal teachers we managed to develop seven child labour messages and paint them on a wooden card in each of the 103 schools in Kigoma and 39 schools in Tanga region. A total of 721 child labour messages wooden cards were produced and posted around schools environments in which 448 are in Kigoma region, and 273 in Tanga region.
The key child labour messages that were delivered to the people through talking compound include the following: Education is every Child’s Right, send Children to School; Stand up, and stop sending Children for domestic works; This school is a Child Labour free School; Children need education, not bricks making, send Children to School; Send Children to School for their future welfare; Children need education and protection, not domestic works; Education First, Stop Child Labour; Fight against Child Labour in fishing; Education is every Child’s Right, send Children to School.
The outcome of establishing talking compounds in schools, it was estimated that about 51,000 students/pupils, teachers and the general community were reached with child labour messages thorough talking environments in both Tanga and Kigoma regions within this reporting period. Also talking compounds has contributed to the change of attitudes among the community members towards using children as child laborers and send them to school after being educated on the effects of child labour and importance of education to the children.
2.11.Child labour door to door raising awareness campaign
In this reporting period, a total of 1053 house hold were estimated to receive child labour massages, but only 922 received CLCs. However throughout the exercise it was noted that, some beneficiary names were written more than twice or three times. And most of house hold does not exist in the villages or street even though; they seem to appear in WEKEZA data base. The campaign started in Korogwe, Muheza and finished in Tanga city municipal.
The exercise were successfully accomplished in team work spirit with 3staff from KIWOHEDE, Social welfare officers from both districts, teachers, VCLCs, VEOs and WEOs and Tanga WEKEZA team whom supported a lot in making sure that the exercise were done, covering a total number of 8villages and 4 street in Tanga city.
During this reporting time the total number of 922 house hold were reached with child labour massages based on effects of child labour, what is child labour, who is a child, types of child labour, child responsibilities at home and within the communities, parents responsibilities and risks children face during performing their duties as cheap worker. The foundation of the campaign was to raise awareness among community members hence increase the knowledge of importance of education to children. The exercise was participatory to both, as it gives opportunity to all members to share their life experience, skills and knowledge they have, there was a room for discussion before home visit and after home visit, the facilitator team had time to discuss the whole picture of the campaign, analyzing the challenges and successful stories observed during the exercise. Beneficiaries’ families were given advice, on their child school follow up, and how potential it is to support their children in school attendances and performance. The campaign took 3days per each village.
In Muheza district, 429 households were targeted to be reached with door to door raising awareness on the effects of child labor. A total of 351 households were reached which is equal to 82% of the targeted households in the district. In Kwafungo village the target was to reach 124 households but a total of 114 which is equal to 92% of targeted households were reached with door to door awareness raising campaign in the campaign.
In Tanga city a total numbers of 219 households were reached with child labor messages through door to door awareness raising campaign in Tanga city. This is equal to 57% of the targeted number of households to be reached in all the three wards. About 167 households which are equal to 43% were not reached due to the reasons that some of the families do not exist and others were in the farms as the campaign was conducted during rainy season and therefore many people go to the farms in the morning and get back in the evening or night.
a) Development, production and dissemination of Brochures
In this reporting period, 1050 copies of Child Rights Clubs brochures were produced and distributed to the 103 schools in both Tanga and Kigoma. The brochures carry the five key messages that were initially developed for the child rights clubs and to be used by club peer leaders and patrons/matrons as a guide in identifying different activities for the clubs that will aim at delivering child labour messages. Each school was given ten copies. The activity of printing these brochures was done during December, 2014 and the distribution of such brochures was done concurrently with the establishment of talking compounds from 14th -28th January, 2015.
b) Production and dissemination of WEKEZA communication strategy.
A total of 100 copies of communication strategy for WEKEZA project were produced and distributed to stakeholders and partners during WEKEZA Mid Term Evaluation meeting held at Serena Hotel, Dar es Salaam. This helped the partners and other project stakeholders to know different ways of communication with their channels that are used by the project for awareness rising on the effects of child labor especially in domestic works and agricultural sector as the key areas of concentration for the project.
c) Development, production and posting of wooden cards in schools (Mabango)
For the period of 2015 a total of 721 child labour messages were developed and produced in wooden cards (Mabango) and placed in 64 schools in Kigoma and 39 schools in Tanga region. The wooden cards carried different child labor messages that specifically emphasized on the effects of child labor especially domestic works and the importance of education to the child.
d) Development and delivering of CL messages.
In this reporting time different child labour messages were developed during district community conversations on child domestic works as well as during behavioral change agents training conducted in Tanga region. The messages includes Stop child labour send children to school, education first employment later, education is the key for life, stop child labour, It is prohibited to use children as child laborers stop child labour. These messages were disseminated to the community members through door to door awareness raising campaign against child labour via Behavioral Change Agents (BCAs) and the community members attended the district conversations on child domestic works. Also during this period nine (9) child labor massages developed and used during CRC visit in Kigoma region. The messages include, Stop Child labor for the future generation, Give me a pen, a hoe is not my right, good education to children build strong nation, Let us make the world a safe place for children stop child labor, build better family glanced child labor, Child in pain no gain at all, make our future bright shape our future right stop child labor, no excuse to child abuse, fight poverty stop child labor.
e) Distribution of T-shirts with child labor messages
A total number of 145 t-shirts with messages that are against child labor distributed to Child Right Clubs members and COBET pupils members as part of awareness to combat Child labor in Kigoma region. Also the t-shirts were distributed COBET facilitator and Child Rights Clubs focal teachers.
f) Dissemination of posters, child labor educational manuals and Leaflets
- In collaboration with IRC, 5000 exercise books with child labor messages were produced and to be distributed to the households during house hold beneficiaries visit.
- A total of 1200 copies of leaflets for Community Health Funds (CHF) were distributed to the households in Korogwe and Muheza districts in Tanga region for the purpose of increasing community’s awareness on the importance of CHF as one of the important social service to the community under social protection component.
- A total of 100 educational child labor manuals were prepared and distributed to VCLC’s members and BCA’s and they were used as guide tool for awareness in Tanga region in all of the three project districts.
- A total of 1000 posters with child labor message were also distributed by KIWOHEDE staffs and the door to door team during door to door awareness raising campaign in Korogwe and Muheza districts
2.12. Lessons Learnt
The following were noted as lesson learnt during activities implementation in both Tanga and Kigoma.
- There is high understanding of what is child labour and its effects within the community and this is applied to target group and the rest
- Community should be involved from project planning and implementation, as well as close follow up to the beneficiaries to develop close partnership between beneficiaries and WEKEZA team
- Home based visit is the best way to understand the real language of the beneficiaries, their stories, life experience and stories after WEKEZA project support
- Most of school environments are not friendly to children, for learning and playing it lead a gap for children to escape from school environments easily.
- Lack of vocational skills canters contributes to children left in villages searching for employment and due to their education level they end up in law payments and cheap labour.
- Some culture practice contribute to the increasing number of children who are engaged into child labor, although there is low /decrease number of forced marriage/young girl marriage but there is high increase number of early pregnancy among young girls, the responsible fathers tend to run away from responsibilities and left young girls single parents.
- The excising associations/groups should be used to help combating child labour in villages and in street.eg CRC clubs, BCAs, and VCLs
viii. The use of bylaw should be in place at the moment, this will help to reduce child labour and parents/guardian will be responsible of their action.
- Government institution are key to help and eliminate child labour only if parents and guardian provide full support, institutions such as police, courts hospitals, and prisons.
- As school talking walls has become champion of behavior and altitude changer agents big billboards is needed within project areas to capture high number of people who still need child labour information.
2.13 Best Practice
There is an increased knowledge about child labor and the importance of education among parents in the project target villages. Child Rights Clubs were established and this has increased peer-to-peer communication relating to the effects of CL. Child Rights Clubs has facilitated peer-to-peer communication, and this has been extremely successful in combating child labor and its effects. Commemoration of world day against child labour, and conducting different Child Labor Events has increased community knowledge on child labor. e. g. WDACL, DAC, community dialogues, parents forums school debates etc.
2.14. 2016 Planned Activities
In the year 2016, under WEKEZA project KIWOHEDE will implement the following activities as part of awareness rising in both Tanga and Kigoma.
- To conducting door to door rasing awareness in Kigoma region
- To conducting school debates in schools both for Tanga and Kigoma region.
- To conduct awareness raising village meetings in Kigoma region.
- To Develop different Information, Education and communication materials in line with communication strategy and disseminates to the beneficiaries.
3.0 Prevention and Rehabilitation of children from commercial Sexual Exploitation in Mtwara Municipal
In partnership with Terre des hommes and KIWOHEDE Mtwara in Mtwara Municipal, the organization continued with project activities and managed to recruit 704 children among of 658 girls and 46 boys and reintegrated them into vocational trainings, life skills training and other income generating activities which aimed at improving life standards of victims and at risk children of commercial sexual exploitation.
The projects implemented in ten wards namely Chuno, Ufukoni, Vigaeni, Likombe, Naliendele, Chikongola, Majengo, Rahaleo and Relini. The project have brought changes and hope to the destitute children and desperate children in the community by providing them with Knowledge which has results of change of behavior Improve in vocational training, life skills, basic needs, Family reunification and improved knowledge on child right.
The project continue to work with respectively cooperation from local government, Donors, 9 4
ward leaders, gender desk officers, social welfare officers, department of education, Health, Culture and sports, youth and law
3.2 Project activities
The main activities of KIWOHEDE continued to maintain and strengthen and build capacity to community members, child stakeholders, to make sure that education of child right, child abuse, child Law of 2009, child policy and commercial sexual exploitation of children.
The following are the activities conducted during the reporting period:-
Kiwohede has done the following activities
- The KIWOHEDE counselors, Social workers at Municipal and wards, Community leaders, owners of Bars and Guest houses, local brew shops collaboratively helped and managed to identify 704 children who were victims of commercial sexual exploitation and who are at risk of commercial sexual exploitation.
- KIWOHEDE organized stakeholders sensitization high level workshops and meetings which strengthened the collaboration and partnership between KIWOHEDE, Government, Community leaders and other NGOs and CBOs and come up with the strategy to protect children against CSEC
KIWOHEDE provide psychosocial counseling and support to the children such as Individual and group counseling, Provision of school and college bursary, legal aid, medical checkups, treatments, and care.
KIWOHEDE provide psychosocial counseling to parents of beneficiaries.
Children were imparted with various life skills and vocational trainings at KIWOHEDE center in collaboration with VETA and Mtawanya colleges, among of 704 girls and boys graduated in 2014 and 2015.
Establishment o f peer education group , theatre group who uses messages to create awareness against CSEC in the community
Establishment and registration of 12 entrepreneur groups and support for bank account opening,
Radio programs which reached a vast number of public member more than 112,551 fortnightly who also were engaged in discussions through questions and answers
Outreach activities through extra curricular school sports, events, dialogues ,discussions and competitions on issues related to child rights and prevention of CSEC among school children
Keeping in mind is not easy to come up with tangible impact in one year but KIWOHEDE with support from TDH-Netherlands has managed to raise awareness against CSEC in Mtwara Mikindani, as a first organization to tackle the problem
KIWOHEDE with support from TDH become the first organization to provide psychosocial counseling / legal counseling to all children of Mtwara Mikindani.
Participated in Establishment of the child protection team which adopted the project work plan into the existing municipal child protection newly developed plans
Retention of target beneficiaries majority in the project intervention and activities until first group graduated in 2014 and the second group graduated in December 2015
Facilitation for graduates girls entrepreneurship groups were registered with a total number of 289 graduates as members in first five wards of the project,
Expanded awareness raising and information dissemination against CSEC through properly organized radio program and themes during sports events at selected schools in the wards were the project is
Monthly meetings with MVCCs created a sense of project ownership by the communities of which some have provided premises for girls businesses
Quarterly meetings with key stakeholders organized by KIWOHEDE such as Gender desks, social workers, CBOs and NGOs, community leaders, Head for department of community development gender and children and social welfare facilitated lobbying and advocacy to policy makers at municipal level and also highly brought in ownership of the project activities by the department.
Generated support from the target beneficiaries who engaged in helping to manage the project by their participation in planning the progress of the project activities including preparation of the community outreach, radio and sports events and entrepreneurship activities Improvement of determination, confidence and self-actualization among the children.
Children were able to make decision basing on the informed choices and acquired certificates following the vocational skills training such as tailoring, carpentry, cooking, bee keeping
Children who do not know how to read and write where taught how to read and write through the COBET programme at KIWOHEDE organised in collaboration with the department of education- at the Municipal
Exposed four girls beneficiaries to a national children's agenda to participate in the constitution reform in Dar es salaam
Organise children debates against CSEC, child abuse, child right, at the centre, during sports events and during the radio program.
Developed IEC materials such as posters and T-shirts following the correction of message and tested by the children in the project.
Project involving and inclusiveness of all stakeholders in the Municipal to protect children and promote their rights such as Police gender desk, Para social workers and paralegals in 10 wards, close collaboration with government departments such as Community development , Social welfare, education, health, business, youth ,legal, communication, agriculture, and social security and gender desk .
Budget constraint in the implementation of some activities
Some children who live in difficult life need regular support from the project such as food and clothes
Weak participation of parents and guardians with regarding child support.
Undisclosed nature of CSEC where there is underground pimps who ferry children from one guest house to another and are very difficult to be identified for rescue and rehabilitation
In some parts of the community still the public members are stigmatized with the situation in particular the whole concept and scope of CSEC in Mtwara Mikindani.
4.0 KIWOHEDE Bunju Education Centre
KIWOHEDE Bunju Multipurpose centre is working under the support of Kiota UK and KIWOHEDE to ensure that the goals and objectives are implemented as to support vulnerable and disadvantaged children and young women in the communities in Kinondoni district and other districts in Dar es Salaam.
The centre is a special centre helping and supporting girls in crises and vulnerable girls who have been working as domestic workers, working in prostitution and those victim of human trafficking and other girls from “extremely poor families who need support of education and other humanitarian needs.
KIWOHEDE Bunju Multipurpose centre has implemented activities from January to December 2015 as to fulfill goal and objectives of supporting vulnerable and disadvantaged girls in our communities whereby achievements, challenges and way forward was viewed for the year 2015.
KIWOHEDE and Kiota UK are still working hard to promote and support vocational activities and Education project which has found to be essential and important for the benefit of the vulnerable children and young women identified in the communities of Tanzania. The support given to the children and young girls have been effective to the communities as one way of preventing girls to engage on prostitution or to work as domestic workers or avoid unwanted pregnancy for young girls once they get such opportunities.
The girls supported for the year 2015 are 79 girls and 11 boys for secondary school education and 20 vocational training skills students.
- Enrollment of the new students
New students for secondary school for academic year 2015 this include 40 girls and 7 boys were registered for form one students and 20 girls for vocational training course. The number of students registered this year was high compared to the previous years and this shows that the service is a highly demand to the community.
- National Examinations results :
The results for the national examinations was announced on early march 2015 and 6 students out of 17 attended the examination were selected to proceed with stage two and out of 6 students one is a girl and the remaining five are boys .The results for that examination was an indicator of good progress compare to previous academic years whereby number of students selected was ranging from none to 1 student per year.
- Computer training session
The school have introduced new program of computer studies to all students who have shown improvements in their performance as motivation and encouragement for them to work hard in their studies.
- Books from National Library
The books from National Library were received at the school as a support to the students on their academic affairs and this was after our last year request and payment of library fees which was a contribution for the services offered. The books offered include Science books, mathematics, Writer’s choice, Element of language.
- Parent meeting
The annually guardian meeting was conducted on 11th September 2015 at the KIWOHEDE Open school compound and a total of 55 parents/ guardians attended that meeting, different issues were discussed concerning school , students and parents themselves.
.The meeting resolutions were
- Selection of the school committee members. Four parents were selected to be members of the school committee whereby they will be responsible to work closely with school management team for good efficiency and performance.
- Strengthening the cooperation between the parents and the school management team.
- Parents and guardians to give support to their student’s wherever necessary for better performance and attendance of their children, this is because majority of the parents are not showing cooperation on assisting their children matters .
- Parent meeting should be conducted twice per year as this will help to remained the parent their responsibilities concerning their children affairs.
- Study Tour
The school organized the trip to Bagamoyo town to see the historical site to get the information on how slave trade was conducted, the coming of the Arabs in East Africa, the spread of Islamic faith as well as the coming of the missionaries in East Africa with the spread of Christianity. The students visited the electric resource site in Tegeta power station whereby the management explained to the students how the natural gas are being transported via pipeline from Songo Songo in Kilwa district..
- Study Camp
The school organized study camp for class two students who were registered for the national examination on 11th November 2015. The camp started on 28th October to 10th November 2015 whereby students were given chance to live temporarily at the school compound for two weeks. Parents suggested to support their children on this exercise, by contributing 10,000/= for every parent or guardian to keep students one week more instead of one week which was budgeted in the project proposal.
The examination conducted on 11th November 2015 whereby fifteen (15) Students out of twenty four (24) in class two were registered for national examination basing on their ability and performance to attempt that examination. The remaining students will repeat the class on the coming academic year 2016.
The school prepared the annual examinations which was performed by class one and class three on 23rd /11/2015 to 27th /11/2015 some improvement was shown in all subjects except in mathematics and English whereby students scored low marks in all classes. More effort is still needed by the students and teachers to make sure those subjects are given priorities to chance the current situation. The school was closed on 4th December 2015 and it will be opened on 4th January 2016.
Emergency and Health Care
Treatment and health care support was given to the students with health problems noted at the school, from January to December the following are cases reported: Malaria, skin infections, vitamin deficiency, flu, injuries and cough. All students were treated accordingly and recovered well.
Renovation and school maintenances
The activity of Renovation and school maintenances started on the late October whereby shelves for the library was made, floor was also repaired in Kiota UK Block and more tables for students and teachers use were also purchased. Partitions in the two buildings means Kiota UK and Pierre Block were done and four classrooms are available for class one up to class four..
4.4.Project achievement 2015
- 6 students were selected to continue with stage two syllabuses after passing their national examinations (class three students’ academic years 2015).
- Academic year 2015 has more students enrolled for class one compared to the previous years
- The school is growing and expanding as now we have four streams from class one to class 4.
- Formation of school committee which constitute four parents as members of the committee.
- Offer of books from Tanzania National Library office in August 2015 has increased the number of books in our library.
- Availability of equipments and teaching materials increased the value and needs of the school.
4.0.Adolescent Sexual Reproductive Health Project- Kahama
KIWOHEDE in partnership with UNFPA is implementing Adolescent Sexual Reproductive Health project which target girls with the age of between ten (10) to nineteen (19) years out of school girls due various factors including early pregnancies, early marriages and prolonged absenteeism in school without any good reason.
The project is located in Kahama district. It operates in two councils namely Kahama Town Council and Msalala District Council, four wards namely Busoka and Mhongolo in Kahama Town Council, Shilela and Lunguya in Msalala Distric Council.
Number of youth reached is 17,720 (Igomelo Mwanva 3,640 (3,200 girls and 440 boys) , Mhongolo 3,100 (2897 girls and 203 boys), Shilela 750 ( 712 girls and38 boys) ,Lunguya 2000 ( 1902 girls and 78 boys ) and outreach 8,230).
4.3.Objectives Of The Project
- Increase access to FP methods utilization among youth in Kahama
- High Level Advocacy to National, Region, District and Wards professionals, community leaders including administrators
- Awareness raising on ASRH among youth age 10 – 19 years and on the essentials of contraceptive
- Train target girls on Income Generating Activities
- School reintegration girls into formal and informal education
- Increase access to FP methods utilization among youth in Kahama
- High Level Advocacy to National, Region, District and Wards professionals, community leaders including administrators
- Awareness raising on ASRH among youth age 10 – 19 years and on the essentials of contraceptive
- Train target girls on Income Generating Activities
- School reintegration girls into formal and informal education
4.4.Structures Of The Project
The project contains of twelve structures including the following:
1. Administrators and experts of various specializations in the municipals which provides services to the society.
2. Community Based Distributors (CBDs).
KIWOHEDE in collaboration with District Health management trained a number of thirty eight (38) Community Based Distributors from nineteen (19) villages with the ratio of two CBDs of two CBDs per village .
3. Income Generation Groups (IGAs).
KIWOHEDE in collaboration with Community Development department has managed to register girls into income generation activities groups and entrepreneur for all four wards and both two councils after having benefited with the entrepreneurship education.
4. Peer educators.
KIWOHEDE has recruited peer educators who play the role of mobilizing their fellow youth about the merits of application of family planning as well as emphasizing the usage of Family Planning methods.
5. Youth Information centre’s.
KIWOHEDE has formed a total number of four youth information centres where girls can meet every day and get time to discus and share experience and get education about Adolescent Sexual Reproductive Health, Family Planning and Entrepreneurship as well. The number of girls enrolled to these centre’s is beyond one thousand four hundred and twenty six.
6. Vocational skills to girls.
KIWOHEDE in partnership with UNFPA have succeeded to enroll eighty two (82) girls to Folk Development College (Chuo Cha Maendeleo ya Wananchi – MWANVA). Nineteen out of twenty two girls successfully completed the requirements of their respective courses including tailoring and computer application. Other two girls opted to join Secondary School Education under private scheme though Qualifying Test (QT) Kishimba Secondary School Centre.
7. Young reporters
KIWOHEDE has managed to recruit young reports who will be sharing with their fellow youth information about Adolescent Sexual Reproductive Health and Family Planning
As KIWOHEDE has established Radio Program on every Saturday from 10 hours immediately after news analysis to 11 hours via Kahama Community Radio.
8. Advocacy strategy.
KIWOHEDE has prepared a strategy of reaching all members of community in the targeted population so that the aim of the project can be fulfilled as planned. Recently the Community members are being involved at sub villages levels as the target is to reach a total number of fifty two sub villages (52) by June 2015.
These gatherings are scheduled to be conducted twice per every Quarter. Many youth are interested with entertainment and edifications, this is one of the methods applied to bring youth closer to get appropriate messages about Adolescent Sexual Reproductive Health and Family planning
10. Social networks (Face book, Twitter and WhatsApp).
Due to advancement of Science and technology where by the world village has been established, KIWOHEDE has created a mechanism of passing messages through these social networks where majority youth are involving in. KIWOHEDE has issued techno (M 3) smart phones to sub villages’ young reporters who can share various challenges, questions which can be send to the Project Coordinator who will forward to Health providers for professional clarification and give feedback answers back to youth.
11. Girls network.
This network has created a base of awareness rising among the girls by showing their role to the community. This has enabled them to come up with about positive consciousness among themselves as well as being courageous with self-determination for their future life. Our girls are now firm and daring.
12. Listeners groups.
Groups of about twenty five (25) youth have been established in every sub village and have been issued with a radio and tape recorder. These youth are listening radio every Saturday , conduct Focus groups Discussions and then share their views with their fellows and in case of any misconceptions and obstacles they forward to the senior reporter who also forwards to the Project Coordinator and finally those information are being forwarded to the Health Workers for answers.
- There has been Increase of awareness rising activities among the girls on SRH and FP uptake.
- Decline of school drop outs ;since many girls , parents and community at large have now become aware on the importance of education ; Secondary and primary school dropouts 2013- 2014 (primary 120 sec.36), 2014 – 2015 (primary 54,sec 09)
- Increase of FP uptakes as many girls have acquired adequate education.
- Mobilized Community support, for example Mwanva Folk Development College has managed to issue the project with the building which is the main centre in Kahama.
- One girl’s networks group in all wards has managed to open a saving bank account at CRDB Kahama Brach with the names of Busoka girls, Very important girls, kikundi cha wasichana Shilela and kikundi cha wasichana Lunguya.
4.6.Status of Implementation Of Activities From January To December 2015
In the year 2015 there were several planned activities to be implemented in the project areas and this can be explained as follows:
# of health workers
# of YFS corners established for SRH services
# of adolescent girls enrolled into formal education
# of radio programs prepared and aired
# of listeners’ centres established
# of young people trained as peer educators to advocate for ASRH and FP
# of adolescent girls trained into IGA,SRH and life skills
4.7.ESTABLISHMENT OF YOUTH FRENDLY SERVICE CORNERS
In the year 2015 KIWOHEDE implemented the activity of establishing Youth FriendlyServices Corners as the result of the rapid assessment conducted in Kahama which reviewed the importance of Youth Friendly Services that are provided by health facilities Establishment of specific youth friendly corners will ensure the SRH information and FP services among youth and increase their demand to FP services.
Three YFS corners established in the year 2015; renovations and expansions to accommodate these corners took place one at Kahama hospital, Shilela dispensary, and at KIWOHEDE center Igomelo. The establishment of these YFS corners involved the two districts in Kahama; Kahama town council and Msalala district council where the District Medical Officers (DMOs), District Nurse Officers (DNOs), and District Reproductive and Child Health Coordinators (DRCHCOs) were involved in the implementation of this activity.
Fund allocated for the two government health facilities were provided directly to the designated districts through DMO’s offices for the establishment of Youth Friendly Services corners. This involved purchasing all the equipments for the center as outlined in the work plan.
In Mwanya KIWOHEDE have managed to purchase various properties including waiting benches, office table for counselor and its chair, shelf, cupboard for contraceptive custody, Samsung TV Set, TV stand and DVD player for youth to watch while waiting for meeting with the Youth Counselor. The same properties were purchased by two corners in the two mentioned health facilities, that is Shilela and Kahama District Hospital. Also by outside the information hall maintenance was built at KIWOHEDE Mwanva Igomelo Street.
4.8.The establishment of YFS corners focused on the following goals/objectives:
- To increase access SRH information among youth in Kahama
- To increase access and use of Family planning among youth hence reducing early pregnant
- To give youth a space where they can be free to explain their problems and get right answers of their questions from health providers
- To contribute to the national’s target of increasing FP services users among the community targeting youth
The establishment of youth friendly services corners in Kahama expects the following results and it will be reported on year 2016 report.
- Increased access of Sexual reproductive health information among youth in Kahama
- Increased access and use of family planning methods among youth in Kahama district
- Increased number of youth visiting health facilities for sexual reproductive health services
- Decreased the number early pregnant incidences among young girls in Kahama as they will be using family planning method
Despite challenges from the field such as traditional values and culture, in this reporting period 2015 the project had good practices mentioned below
- The increased number of youth visiting YFS corners after received SRH / FP information
- Positive Community response through radio program as many youth makes calls during the and after the program seeking for advice
- Increase number of adolescent who decide to join KIWOHEDE centers
- There have been some requests from the neighboring villages where the project is not working if for the next plan to be included. The reason behind is the positive impact of the services provided to the beneficiaries of the project
For the year 2015, the project faced the following threats as mentioned bellow
- Persistence of child marriage
- Language barrier
- In adequate reliable information for adolescents such as news papers, radio , Tv in some of sub villages
- In adequate of reliable data at district and ward level
- In adequate of youth friendly services at some of government health facilities with shortage of FP commodities
4.11. Way Forward
- Intensification of SRH awareness raising and targeting youth, parents and community members
- Raising awareness on contraceptive and acceptance rates among youth
- Intensification and wider coverage of general public engagement in raising FP prevalence rate through radio and other institutionalized structures.
- Provision of capacity building , such as training on IGAs and entrepreneurship skills
- Strengthening Family planning / SRH service and delivery in youth friendly services
5.0.Children and Youth Participation Project (CYP)
Incidences with an increase CSEC in Tanzania were revealed by ILO Rapid Assessment report on the situation of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (WFCL) in Tanzania (2001).The report shows that CSEC incidences are coincided with extreme poverty, the disintegration of the extended family system, sexual abuse, violence, divorce, polygamy and the impact of HIV/AIDS. Following the national dissemination and action taken through consistently, the government of Tanzania has made significant efforts in ensuring that children rights are protected ratifying the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1990 and the ILO Convention No.182 in June 2001 and committing itself to the elimination of the worst forms of child Labour. In 2009, Law of Child Act was enacted to effectively domesticate the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and provides the legal framework through which the rights of the country’s children can be protected and realized. Many efforts have been made since 1990s from awareness raising to law’s enactment. Tanzania also has national legislations and worked into enforcement of some of those legislations such as The Employment and Labour Relations Act No.6 of 2004, section 4, 5 and 6 has provisions specific to the abuse and exploitation of children in various work-settings. The Act states that the list of dangerous jobs which children are not allowed to work such as mines, construction, hazardous informal employment including exploitative domestic services as well as sexual exploitation and the use of children in prostitution and pornographic activities. It further states that children who are 14 years and above can be employed for work which is not hazardous, which should not affect their health development and their school attendance.
On the other hand, the Anti Trafficking in Persons Act (2008), states in Part 11 section 4 (c & d) that, a person commits an offence of trafficking in persons if that person offers or contracts marriage, real or simulated, for purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling a person or undertakes, organizes sex tourism or sexual exploitation or maintains or hires a person to engage in prostitution or pornography. The new Child Law (2009) amalgamates and harmonizes all other previous legislations in to one legislation in order to facilitate interpretation, application and enforcement. The law has other advantages, including the spelling out of the mandate and responsibility of the local government in ensuring and safeguarding the rights of the child. Tanzania has also ratified international and regional conventions, which suggest a commitment by the government to human rights principles.
Main conventions ratified by Tanzania include:
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979)
Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (1990)
Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2000)
ILO Convention No.182 on Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (2000)
Despite all the efforts geared towards ending violence against children in Tanzania, yet there is no contemporary national study carried out so far with focus on establishing magnitude of CSEC in and access to justice among the victims of CSEC in Tanzanian
5.2.Objectives of The study
In July 2014 ECPAT Secretariat made an assessment visit to Tanzania to gain an understanding on the legal framework on protection children form sexual exploitation and other forms of violence against children, the functioning of the current Tanzanian child protection system, including the procedures for providing recovery and reintegration services to CSEC victims, the community structures and their ability to provide support to victims of CSEC; to assess the scope of the CSEC problem and its main forms in Tanzania; to identify the main challenges and barriers in combating CSEC by governmental stakeholders; to understand the work of the KIWOHEDE and their potential in running project; to identify the achievement in combating CSEC, gaps and needs should be addresses and where ECPAT could contribute with technical and financial support. During the visit a special meeting with children peer supporters were carried out that helped to hear the voice of those of high risk of sexual exploitation and survivors. Therefore the study is funded by ECPAT International with the following objectives:
1.1. To inform child rights stakeholders about magnitude of CSEC and situation of access to legal aids among the CSEC victims.
1.2.National Study on the scope of CSEC in Tanzania and Access to Justice will pave the way to CSEC victims to raise their voices
1.3.By using collected findings the general public and stakeholders will be informed on the current situation of CSEC in Tanzania and barriers child-victims face while accessing justice system
1.4.By using findings from the study stakeholders will be able to design children’s rights based projects with focus on preventing, rescuing and promoting children’s rights with highly consideration to CSEC
5.3.Methodology to be employed
National study on CSEC will mainly focus on both quantitative approach and qualitative approach. For the sake of establishing magnitude of CSEC from areas of study , national study on CSEC mostly aim at gathering quantitative data while Access to justice study largely focus on yielding qualitative data during the desk review session
The study about access to justice among the CSEC victims will be undertaken is Dar es salaam. Though National study with focus on CSEC will also be carried out in Dar es salaam as well. Most of the children from rural areas of Tanzania tend to move from their regions to Dar es salaam as domestic servants and others seek for different opportunities, while other victims and at risk children were abandoned by their caregivers. Since not all the children who come in Dar es salaam meet their dreams, as a result most of them end up being street children, while those who are employed lack proper parental care. Eventually incidences concerning child rights abuse in Dar es salaam in which CSEC is inclusive. Other targeted regions for National study on CSEC include Mbeya region which is claimed to be to be having CSEC incidences due to the fact that Mbeya is an outlet to Zambia and Malawi
Furthermore; National study on CSEC will be carried out in Mwanza in which high influx of children is caused by fishing activities plus rapid growth of town due to the fact that Mwanza is an outlet towards regions neighboured with Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi . Mtwara and Zanzibar are also among the targeted areas for touristic activities are also influencing incidences related to child abuse whereby CSEC is also inclusive.
1.7.Sample size and Sampling Procedures
Questionnaires with approval from government officials and senior Researchers, will guide researchers to undertake semi structured interviews to 200 School children, 40 to 50 Child Survivors by using essay contest and group work approach. National study will also reach 25 Workers in CSEC Areas, 40 Adult Survivors, NGO social workers on victims, 10 NGO staff workers – on shelter. Moreover, under CSEC study, Researchers will interview workers from informal sectors for example taxi drivers, saloon owners, bar and hotel owners, bar maids and others with similar consideration
Meanwhile , Researchers under Access to justice will undertake semi structured interview by interviewing 2 Judges ,2 Prosecutor, 2 Police gender desk 1/ WP, 2 Legal Aid/ Lawyers ,2 Social welfare / Social worker officer.
1.8. Sampling Procedures
Since the study will be involving two studies ,categorically researchers in CSEC will selected children in support of the adults , for example school children and students will be selected with support from teachers .Whereby primary school children are supposed to be in grade five to seven and those in secondary schools will be supposed to be in form one to form six .In shelters the researchers will collaborate with center managers and Social workers or NGO staff to identify children by picking them with purposeful methods example areas where CSEC are sheltered and Non CSEC victims who frequent the center, other children will include children who tend to be referred to a shelter with various problems in regards to sexual abuse from police stations, social welfare offices, court, bus stand and community leaders offices .Adult respondents will be selected by focusing on areas which are coincided with CSEC incidences .Targeted adult respondents includes NGO staff, CSEC Adult survivors, workers in CSEC areas like tax drivers, hotel , bar, saloon managers .While in access to justice researchers will interview
1.9. Validity and Reliability of the study
1.9.1. Validity of data
For the sake of ensuring validity, KIWOHEDE developed Research tools which were then shared to government officials and senior researchers. The meeting which involved government officials and senior researchers was deliberately carried out in order to validate research tool. Therefore it is expected that data be collected will be yielded in the manner which is scholarly and ethically acceptable. Also in order to achieve validity, all data to be collected will be reviewed and organized in such a way that they capture relevant information for the research objectives.
1.9.2. Reliability of data
One week was used by experts from ECPAT International and two senior Researchers to impart skills to Researchers on ethical and reasonable means of collecting data . Therefore results of both studies are expected to be reliable due to the fact that Researchers were well trained and got an opportunity of passing through every research tool finally they all signed codes of conducts regarding to the study .
1.9.3. Data Collection Methods
The main data collection methods will be semi structured which will be aided by questionnaires with contents that differ from one category of respondent to another .Though Access to justice study will be undertaken by using semi structured interview using guidelines in terms of questionnaires and Desk review method which will involve some members and officials from the Multi-Sector Task Force on National Response to Violence against Children and Child Rights Forum, representatives of key governmental offices, international and non-governmental institutions
The researchers will begin each interview by explaining the purpose of the study and the informant’s willingness to participate. Interviews will include unstructured or open-ended questions that will be introduced at the beginning of the interview to allow the interviewees express ideas in their own words at leisure. The interviewer has also an opportunity to appraise the accuracy, validity of replies as contradictory statements can be followed up, and possible reasons for contradictions can be learned. In spite of many advantages, the interview also has limitations that jeopardize its value, even when it is used to as a supplementary research technique
The questionnaires will used to collect primary data from respondents , each of the category of respondent will be interviewed by using different guiding questionnaire with focus on particular target of the CSEC and Access to Justice. Therefore questionnaires are just for guiding researchers on what to be asked during interview , this approach saves as all questionnaires will be filled at a time in a particular category of respondents. As with the interview questions, each questionnaire is equipped with a good number of item or questions that will guide Researchers in collecting sufficient information regarding to either National study on CSEC or Access to justice among the victims of CSEC .
5.5.Data entry and Data Analysis
After submission of filled questionnaires by Researcher from their respective study areas, expert in data entry and analysis will soon assume the role of data entry and preliminary analysis .Rationale behind data entry and preliminary analysis is to ensure creation of user friendly quantitative information during report writing. Therefore , as soon as data entry and preliminary data analysis ends, report writers will be able to incorporate quantitative information in their reports .Most of the qualitative data will be obtained during the desk review which will involve some members and officials from the Multi-Sector Task Force on National Response to Violence against Children and Child Rights Forum, representatives of key governmental offices, international and non-governmental institutions in the research which will lead to advocacy actions following the Study findings and recommendations an interview will be compared with those collected from other respondents. Content analysis will be used in order to allow coding and classification of data according to categories.
5.6.Activities carried out so far
1.10. Four days capacity building training on effective and ethical research involving CSEC survivors
From Tuesday 4th November –Friday 7th November 2015 the training was held at YWCA hall, whereby the training went up to four days as per tentative schedule .
4.1.2. Objectives of the training
The training was organized for the sake of capacitating research team on how to undertake effective and ethical research which involves SCESC survivors, also the training aimed at ensuring that every person who will take part in the research is feminized with tools prepared for research. The training involved several things including validating Research tools, pre-testing research tools and finalizing research protocol
1.11. Data Collection and Entry
Up to date all the teams assigned to undertake an exercise of data collection managed to submit filled questionnaires and the person responsible for data entry and analysis in on progress with his part .As data entry and analysis ends , report writers will assume their roles immediately .
1.12. Taboos and religious factors
In some regions like Mwanza children were a bit afraid to reveal all the issues pertaining to them with regard to CSEC just because of fear and lack of confidence which is influenced by taboos which do not allow them to talk about such issues as claimed to be indiscipline .Also due to religious perspectives some interviewees were afraid to talk openly about CSEC incidences just because of afraid on basis of religious issues.
1.13. Unwillingness and fear
In some areas like Mbeya and Mtwara some respondents especially tax drivers were not showing willing to take part in the study due to lack of willingness and some were fearing to reveal issues which they witness in their daily activities as far as CSEC incidences concern.
5.7 Ways Forward
Collectively the team responsible for the study agreed on proper means of approaching respondents and creation of conducive environment before undertaking actual study so that every targeted respondent is prepared for participation in the study.
Involvement of Government officials in the study added a very important paramount in making the study more successful.
5.9.Conclusion and winding remarks
Despite all the efforts of Government with focus on combating violence against children including CSEC still there are incidences of CSEC hence as this study ends, National dissemination of findings will pave the way to collective means of addressing the problem.
6.0. KIWOHEDE Centres Activities
KIWOHEDE work in more than 10 regions and own a total number of 6 centers in Tanzania namely Kahama, Mtwara, Iringa, Mbeya Buguruni Malapa and Bunju Centre a multipurpose centre under KIOTA UK funding . All centers provide psychosocial counseling to children victims of GBV for example sexual exploitation and abuse, domestic worker, child labour, violence sexual exploitation including trafficked victims. Moreover the centre offer vocational skills except Bunju centre which is a Multipurpose, the centre itself provide extra training facility assisting vulnerable children and youth who missed opportunity to complete their secondary education at ordinary level (form four) but also the centre provide, temporary shelter to all victims of Gender Based Violence, KIWOHEDE head quarter centre, is one of the best centre that provide HIV/AIDS counselling and testing to any community and referral to near centres for further treatments. Among the ongoing activities in KIWOHEDE HQ, the centre is also an information centre were by children and youth meet and share experiences they go through and they help each other to solve their problem in the simplest way, they watch educative videos together and listen to news. Children at the centre are trained with various skills such life skills but also vocational skills as tailoring, batik making etc.
KIWOHEDE centers, offers psychosocial counseling, HIV/AIDS testing and counseling, STI treatment and counseling on behavior change among youth. Identification, withdrawing and rehabilitation of children in vulnerable situation like children in prostitution, hazardous domestic work and destitute ones.
Children integration, livelihood skills training, for community mobilization KIWOHEDE also conducts outreach theatre art and home visiting. KIWOHEDE is also participating in conducting individual research or in collaboration with other institution.
7.0. KIWOHEDE Head Quarters- Buguruni Malapa
KIWOHEDE head quarters has been implementing various activities throughout the year 2015, The centre had a total number of 66 children, 25 male and 41 female performing various activities, these activities include Identification of children through children rights committee and referrals. Also psychosocial counselling and various educational sessions on various aspects such as reproductive health and personal hygiene are provided to the children at the centre.
Moreover Vocational Skills is one among the ongoing activities in KIWOHEDE HQ, Children at the centre are trained with various skills such as tailoring, batik making etc. These skills empower youth because it helps them generate income. Also KIWOHEDE facilitated counselling activities on HIV/AIDS by encouraging voluntary testing, Also pre counselling and post counselling together with continuous counselling. But this project didn’t sustain for long, it stopped because the government stopped providing facilities for testing HIV/AIDS.
KIWOHEDE HQ also provided family planning drugs and STI treatment together with supply of condoms. Life skills and communication skills are also provided to the children at the centre, this is done through radio, TV, posters, storytelling, testimony’s, discussions and debates. Moreover KIWOHEDE has also engaged on outreach activities such as testing case, educating, bonanza and arts. In the year 2015 KIWOHEDE HQ received aids for the children from TTCL items received are, rice, sugar, cooking oil and flour.
- Despite not having ongoing projects at KIWOHEDE HQ children still come in and activities have never stopped.
- Research study is conducted at KIWOHEDE HQ by various students from Universities in Tanzania
- Children at the centre engage themselves with entrepreneurship activities such as selling their self made products such as mats, and they have acquired such skills through vocational skills provided at KIWOHEDE.
- Moreover KIWOHEDE HQ has been receiving aids for the children from various individuals such as TTCL, various individual who provide the centre with food, used clothes and soap.
- Also some of the parents tend to be conscience with the progress of their children at the centre.
- Poor attendance of the children at the centre, Most of children come from different area that needs them to use transport and that they cannot afford transport cost The main reason is that they claim not to have fare to get to the center from their homes.
- Parents are reluctant to contribute for materials used by the children to learn and start their own small business.
- Lack of funds from the government for centre activities.
- Lack of facilities in the laboratory at the centre, such facilities are family planning pills and medications for sexual transmitted diseases.